GATEWAY TO INDIA’S FINANCIAL CAPITAL

Foreword

The Future of Infrastructure

In 2018, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) listed Mumbai as one of the most economically robust Alpha-level cities in the world, reinforcing Mumbai’s position as an emerging world city. However, the city is facing a colossal infrastructural challenge and needs an upgraded, sustainable and resilient urban infrastructure to meet Mumbai’s unique complications, potential and scale. Some of these challenges have been highlighted in the Mumbai-focused results of AECOM’s second global Future of Infrastructure report.

As part of this research, we asked over 1,000 people in Mumbai for their views on the city’s infrastructure and their expectations for future developments. We found that the citizens recognise the work being done to improve the city’s transportation, for example, through the construction of Mumbai Metro Line 3, Mumbai Trans Harbour Link, Navi Mumbai Airport, Mumbai Coastal Road, etc. But the majority of the respondents are not satisfied with the reliability of public transportation, with 75% finding it increasingly stressful to use. Residents were, however, willing to pay higher fares to support improvements.

For the citizens of Mumbai, smarter, faster, sustainable infrastructure is a topmost priority alongside improving environmental sustainability (e.g. recycling, wastewater re-use and solar power). The other focus areas highlighted are upgrading public transportation and upgrading utilities. Interestingly citizens want to have greater private sector involvement in infrastructure development and are willing to participate at individual levels to help the city’s authorities/agencies improve the city’s infrastructure.

AECOM has extensive experience of working in Mumbai and other major global cities. With our network of planners, designers, engineers and management professionals, we have the knowledge and reach to develop and deliver innovative infrastructure solutions that improve lives and connect communities.

Avinash MisraChief Executive, India, AECOM

Mumbai, one of the largest metropolitan areas (603.4 square kilometres) in the world, is the capital city of the state of Maharashtra, India. The city is the commercial capital of India and home to the biggest port in India.

Mumbai is also considered as one of the world's top 10 centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, contributing significantly to India's GDP. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016.Studies have also placed Mumbai as one of the top 20 richest cities in the world.

INFRASTRUCTURE IS EVERYONE’S BUSINESS

In collaboration with Longitude — a Financial Times Company, AECOM’s Future of Infrastructure research harnesses survey data and opinions from over 10,000 infrastructure users in 10 major global cities, including Mumbai, to ask how satisfied, safe, inspired and engaged people feel with their roads and bridges, rail services and utilities.

Mumbai is heading in the right direction, providing the lifeline that the city needs

In 2018, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) listed Mumbai as an Alpha-level city.GaWC City Link Classification 2018 The Global Metro Monitor report also ranked Mumbai 23rd overall on its ‘Economic Performance Index of the world’s 300 largest metro areas’, reinforcing Mumbai’s position as an emerging world city.Global Metro Monitor 2018

In our Future of Infrastructure 2019 survey, however, Mumbaikars clearly indicate that they need an upgraded, sustainable and resilient urban infrastructure to meet Mumbai’s unique challenges, potential and scale.

For example, Mumbaikars were generally displeased with the reliability of public transportation, with 75% finding it increasingly stressful to use and 58% were willing to pay higher fares to support transport improvements.

Some 82% of respondents supported the private sector taking a greater role in infrastructure development. Mumbaikars were also more engaged with the government, which is promoting interaction via social media and mobile channels, than the other major cities surveyed — scoring an Engagement index score of 5.9 compared to the 3.3 average.

The Voice of the People // The Future of Infrastructure

[City]: Satisfaction

In 2016, the government framed a Comprehensive Mobility Plan (CMP) to provide seamless connectivity throughout the region. And 60% of Mumbai residents cited public transport as their primary method of transportation within the city compared to 94% in Hong Kong, 84% in Singapore and 70% in London.

The survey found that the majority (54%) feel that they have a ‘good/excellent’ ability to get to where they need to go and 42% think the on-time reliability of public transport is ‘overall good/excellent’. But 75% — the highest percentage among the cities, alongside Hong Kong — find it increasingly stressful to travel on public transportation.

Scores for satisfaction, engagement, innovation, and resilience are based on a 1–10 scale.

  • 10–7.6

    Very satisfied

  • 7.5–5.1

    Moderately satisfied

  • 5.0–2.6

    Not very satisfied

  • 2.5–1.0

    Dissatisfied

It is notable that, second to Riyadh (66%), 51% of Mumbai respondents feel government usually makes the right decisions about which large infrastructure projects to fund. Some 47% feel that large-scale transportation projects were usually completed on schedule. At the same time, 69% said that city officials tend to take a short-term view of infrastructure planning. 

Mumbaikars identify roads (29%) and water infrastructure (21%) as their two most important public spending priorities for the future. This focus on water is, perhaps, unsurprising. Many respondents had issues in terms of the reliability of their utilities. Around 38% had experienced an outage or restricted supply of water from their providers on more than four occasions, while 50% had more than four power cuts to their residence or those of a neighbour. Yet, the majority of respondents agreed that water and electricity services were affordable (68% and 49%, respectively).

Interestingly, 82% of Mumbaikars (highest among the cities) agree that the private sector should be more involved in the development of infrastructure. Endeavours, therefore, to improve city’s infrastructure are likely to be welcomed.

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Key to Modernizing Infrastructure

An Informed Engaged Public:

The Voice of the People // The Future of Infrastructure

[City]: Engagement

In the last 12 months, a large majority (76%) had the opportunity to provide feedback to a public transportation provider, while 70% (the highest percentage of all 10 cities) said that requests for feedback about infrastructure improvements or investments come too late in the planning stage for their influence to be meaningful.

More than half of Mumbaikars surveyed (57% — highest of all 10 cities) opined that city officials were clear about submission procedures when requesting citizen feedback about public infrastructure issues.

 

Scores for satisfaction, engagement, innovation, and resilience are based on a 1–10 scale.

  • 10–7.6

    Very satisfied

  • 7.5–5.1

    Moderately satisfied

  • 5.0–2.6

    Not very satisfied

  • 2.5–1.0

    Dissatisfied

When asked about engagement channels, many Mumbaikars agreed that city planning authorities are making it easier to engage with them via social media (60%) and mobile channels (61%), followed by Riyadh — social media (57%) and mobile channels (59%).

In the last 12 months, the top two issues which Mumbaikars had the opportunity to provide feedback on were billing issues (40%) and the price of services (36%).

Some 70% of respondents also think that changes in elected city officials often result in major changes to infrastructure policy. This is the highest percentage among all 10 cities and followed by Sydney (54%), Toronto (54%) and Riyadh (51%).

THE top THREE major infrastructure projects delivered in Mumbai IN the last ten years

Project

Mumbai Metro Line 3 (MML-3)

Mumbai Metro Line 3 (MML-3)
Project

Mumbai Trans Harbour Link

Mumbai Trans Harbour Link
Project

Mumbai Coastal Road

Mumbai Coastal Road

The Voice of the People // The Future of Infrastructure

[City]: Innovation

The top three technologies with the greatest expected impact on quality of life for respondents in Mumbai were thought to be solar power, fibre-optic broadband and fast rail connections to airports.

Emerging technologies, such as virtual/augmented reality and driverless vehicles were perceived to have the smallest potential impact.

Mumbai respondents identified improving environmental sustainability (e.g. recycling, wastewater re-use and solar power) as the most important improvement to infrastructure for them in the future. This was followed, in order of priority, by upgrading public transportation and upgrading utilities.

 

Scores for satisfaction, engagement, innovation, and resilience are based on a 1–10 scale.

  • 10–7.6

    Very satisfied

  • 7.5–5.1

    Moderately satisfied

  • 5.0–2.6

    Not very satisfied

  • 2.5–1.0

    Dissatisfied

A large majority (75%) of the respondents are able to pay for water, power, public transportation, other utilities or public municipal services using a mobile phone or tablet app. This success is the result of the Digital India programme, a flagship national government programme with the vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.Digital India: Power to Empower

Some 78% of Mumbaikars (the highest percentage among all 10 cities) said that they use at least one mobile app to stay updated on the status of public transport, and 68% are willing to share their personal data with relevant city agencies to help improve city infrastructure services.

More than any other city, with Riyadh as a close second (54%), the majority of Mumbaikars (56%) have viewed an infrastructure plan made available by city authorities in the last 12 months.

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Making Cities Resilient:

The Voice of the People // The Future of Infrastructure

[City]: Resilience

Heavy rainfalls have always disrupted normal life in this country’s commercial capital with many areas left waterlogged. However, 48% feel confident in the city government's ability to protect infrastructure from natural (weather-related) disasters, such as floods.

This compares to the 52% of respondents — following Riyadh (69%) and Singapore (54%) — who gave their vote of confidence in the city government’s ability to protect infrastructure in the event of a terrorist attack, and cyberattacks (46%), second only again to Riyadh (51%).

Almost two-thirds of Mumbaikars (60%) believe that the government is lagging behind other countries when it comes to encouraging or implementing environmentally sustainable practices. 

Scores for satisfaction, engagement, innovation, and resilience are based on a 1–10 scale.

  • 10–7.6

    Very satisfied

  • 7.5–5.1

    Moderately satisfied

  • 5.0–2.6

    Not very satisfied

  • 2.5–1.0

    Dissatisfied

Some 54% of citizens, behind only Singapore (63%), indicated that they had been informed of drills or exercises that the city authorities had organised in the last two years to prepare for an emergency.

Mumbai’s new Development Plan (DP) 2034 was recently unveiled with a lot of fanfare. This plan is expected to change the landscape of India’s financial capital to rival that of London or New York.Mumbai Development Plan 2034 It is also evident that the government is making efforts to increase the amount of green space in the city, with 52% agreeing that the amount of open green space has expanded in the last two years.

The Future of Infrastructure

Infographic

Mumbai at a glance

The top three future infrastructure projects in Mumbai 

Project

Navi Mumbai Airport

Navi Mumbai Airport
Project

High-Speed Rail between Mumbai and Ahmedabad

High-Speed Rail between Mumbai and Ahmedabad
Project

Mumbai Metro Line 8, 10, 11 and 12

Mumbai Metro Line 8, 10, 11 and 12